Jakarta Sinking Below Sea Level

Threats Rising Due To Climate Change, Development

By Michael Kimmelman, New York Times

With climate change, the Java Sea is rising and weather here is becoming more extreme. Earlier this month another freakish storm briefly turned Jakarta’s streets into rivers and brought this vast area of nearly 30 million residents to a virtual halt.

One local climate researcher, Irvan Pulungan, an adviser to the city’s governor, fears that temperatures may rise several degrees Fahrenheit, and the sea level as much as three feet in the region, over the coming century.

That, alone, spells potential disaster for this teeming metropolis.

But global warming turned out not to be the only culprit behind the historic floods that overran Rasdiono’s bodega and much of the rest of Jakarta in 2007. The problem, it turned out, was that the city itself is sinking.

Jakarta and climate change

In fact, Jakarta is sinking faster than any other big city on the planet, faster, even, than climate change is causing the sea to rise — so surreally fast that rivers sometimes flow upstream, ordinary rains regularly swamp neighborhoods and buildings slowly disappear underground, swallowed by the earth. The main cause: Jakartans are digging illegal wells, drip by drip draining the underground aquifers on which the city rests — like deflating a giant cushion underneath it. About 40 percent of Jakarta now lies below sea level.

Coastal districts, like Muara Baru, near the Blessed Bodega, have sunk as much as 14 feet in recent years. Not long ago I drove around northern Jakarta and saw teenagers fishing in the abandoned shell of a half-submerged factory. The banks of a murky canal lapped at the trestle of a railway bridge, which, until recently, had arched high over it.

Climate change acts here as it does elsewhere, exacerbating scores of other ills. And in Jakarta’s case, a tsunami of human-made troubles — runaway development, a near-total lack of planning, next to no sewers and only a limited network of reliable, piped-in drinking water — poses an imminent threat to the city’s survival.

Sinking buildings, sprawl, polluted air and some of the worst traffic jams in the world are symptoms of other deeply rooted troubles. Distrust of government is a national condition. Conflicts between Islamic extremists and secular Indonesians, Muslims and ethnic Chinese have blocked progress, helped bring down reform-minded leaders and complicated everything that happens here, or doesn’t happen, to stop the city from sinking.

“Nobody here believes in the greater good, because there is so much corruption, so much posturing about serving the public when what gets done only serves private interests,” as Sidney Jones, the director of the local Institute for Policy Analysis of Conflict, put it. “There is no trust.”

Hydrologists say the city has only a decade to halt its sinking. If it can’t, northern Jakarta, with its millions of residents, will end up underwater, along with much of the nation’s economy. Eventually, barring wholesale change and an infrastructural revolution, Jakarta won’t be able to build walls high enough to hold back the rivers, canals and the rising Java Sea.

And even then, of course, if it does manage to heal its self-inflicted wounds, it still has to cope with all the mounting threats from climate change.

As far the eye can see, 21st-century Jakarta is a smoggy tangle of freeways and skyscrapers. Spread along the northwestern coast of Java, this capital of the nation with the world’s largest Muslim population used to be a soggy, bug-infested trading port for the Hindu kingdom of Sunda before local sultans took it over in 1527.

They named it Jayakarta, Javanese for victorious city.

Dutch colonists arrived a century later, establishing a base for the East India territories. Imagining a tropical Amsterdam, they laid out streets and canals to try to cope with water pouring in from the south, out of the forests and mountains, where rain falls nearly 300 days out of the year. Thirteen rivers feed into the city.

After independence in 1945, the city began to sprawl. Today, it is virtually impossible to walk around. Parks are rarer than Javan rhinos. A trip to the nearest botanical garden requires the better part of a day in bumper-to-bumper traffic.

“Living here, we don’t have other places to go,” said Yudi and Titi, a young professional couple who one recent Sunday had made the roughly hour’s round trip from western Jakarta to the center of the city just to spend a few minutes walking up and down a chaotic, multilane freeway briefly closed to traffic. “Without cars, at least you can breathe for a few minutes,” Titi said.

The most urgent problems are in North Jakarta, a coastal mash-up of ports, nautically themed high-rises, aged fish markets, abject slums, power plants, giant air-conditioned malls and the congested remnants of the colonial Dutch settlement, with its decrepit squares and streets of crumbling warehouses and dusty museums.

Some of the world’s most polluted canals and rivers weave a spider’s web through the area.

It is where the city is sinking fastest.

That’s because, after decades of reckless growth and negligent leadership, crises have lined up here like dominoes.

Jakarta’s developers and others illegally dig untold numbers of wells because water is piped to less than half the population at what published reports say are extortionate costs by private companies awarded government concessions.

The aquifers aren’t being replenished, despite heavy rains and the abundance of rivers, because more than 97 percent of Jakarta is now smothered by concrete and asphalt. Open fields that once absorbed rain have been paved over. Shores of mangroves that used to help relieve swollen rivers and canals during monsoons have been overtaken by shantytowns and apartment towers.

There is always tension between immediate needs and long-term plans. It’s a similar story in other sinking giants like Mexico City. Here, all of the construction, combined with the draining of the aquifers, is causing the rock and sediment on which Jakarta rests to pancake.

Read The Full Story About Jakarta, Indonesia

Obamas Vacation In Indonesia

Former U.S. President Lived In Jakarta, Yogyakarta

By Reuters

President Obama and his family have spent the past five days island-hopping in Indonesia, visiting everywhere from Jakarta to Bali. From white water rafting to visiting temples on Java, former U.S. President Barack Obama’s private family holiday is being closely tracked in Indonesia where he spent four years as a child.

Obama was six when he moved to Jakarta after his American mother, Ann Dunham, married an Indonesian man following the end of her marriage to Obama’s Kenyan father.

“I feel proud that my friend became a president,” said Sonni Gondokusumo, 56, a former classmate of Obama at the Menteng 01 state elementary school in Jakarta.

Obama visits Java

Gondokusumo showed a class photograph of himself standing behind a young Obama, who was wearing a school beret.

“He was a clever boy. Whenever a teacher asked him to solve a problem in front of the class, he could do it,” Gondokusomo told Reuters, adding he hoped to meet the former president again.

Obama remains popular in the world’s most populous Muslim nation and his trip has been splashed across the media during an extended public holiday to mark the end of the fasting month of Ramadan. The Rakyat Merdeka newspaper carried a headline “Obama loves Indonesia.”

Obama returned for an official visit as president in 2010 with his wife, Michelle, but this time has brought daughters Malia and Sasha as well.

Indonesians are avid social media users and snaps of the former U.S. president walking with his family in rice fields and rafting on Bali’s Ayung River have gone viral.

Obama kicked off the holiday on the island of Bali, where he stayed at the luxurious Four Seasons Resort Bali near the cultural center of Ubud. On Wednesday, Obama and his family arrived in the city of Yogyakarta and visited the ancient temple of Borobudur.

Borobudur Java Indonesia

According to CNN Indonesia, Central Java police deployed 700 officers to secure his visit to Borobudur, a Buddhist temple dating from the 8th and 9th centuries.

Obama is due to meet President Joko Widodo on Friday at the palace in Bogor, south of Jakarta, and visit the capital on Saturday.

Indonesia Travel News via https://www.reuters.com/article/us-indonesia-usa-obama-idUSKBN19J1JT

Language and Travel Guide To Indonesia

Crossbow Communications specializes in international marketing, issue management and public affairs. Indonesia is one of our regions of expertise. Our President and founder is the author of the Language and Travel Guide to Indonesia. Please contact Gary Chandler at gary@crossbow1.com. Visit Indonesia.

Indonesia’s Top Destinations

Tourists Have Fascinating Travel Options Across Thousands Of Islands

Indonesia is a very large and diverse country. With 18,110 islands, 6,000 of them inhabited, it is the largest archipelago in the world. The population of 240 million people is composed of about 300 ethnic groups who speak more than 250 different languages. While Bali and Jakarta are often the destinations of choice for business and pleasure, let’s explore some other top tourist attractions in Indonesia.

Yogyakarta: This is the historic and cultural capital of Java and Indonesia. The sultan of Java lives here in the Kraton. The area features some of the most impressive ancient monuments in Indonesia–Borobudur and Prambanan. Borobudur is the largest Buddhist monument in the world, while Prambanan is one of the largest Hindu monuments in the world. Mt. Merapi is visible from Yogyakarta and most of the region.

Mt. Merapi Java Indonesia

Merapi is one of the most active volcanoes in all of Indonesia. Yogyakarta also is famous for its arts, especially batik fabrics. Bicycles and horse-drawn carts are still very common forms of transportation in the region, which gives the area a special charm, despite its sprawling size. Yogyakarta also is a university city, which gives it even more character.

Komodo Island: The only way to reach Komodo is by boat, which is an experience that can’t be missed in this island nation. Most visitors arrive on large boats, which is a first-class way to eat and sleep in this extremely remote region.

The Komodo dragons live on three islands in the area–Komodo, Rinca and Padar. A few have even crossed the strait to the western tip of Flores. These arid, volcanic islands are inhabited by about 5,700 giant lizards, which grow as large as 12 feet long (three meters). They exist nowhere else in the world and are of great interest to scientists studying the theory of evolution.

Komodo dragon Indonesia

The local villagers call the Komodo dragon ora, which means land crocodile. The dragons are normally a sandy brown with dark markings against very coarse and dry scales. They have a long neck and a tail that is longer than their body. They have strong, sharp claws that are used in combat with other dragons and during feeding frenzies.

The rugged hillsides of dry savannah and pockets of thorny green vegetation contrast with the brilliant white sandy beaches and the blue waters surging over coral. Although the dragons are the primary attraction to the area, these waters offer some of the best scuba diving in the country and the world. The marine fauna and flora are generally the same as that found throughout the Indo Pacific area, though species richness is very high, notable marine mammals include blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) and sperm whale (Physeter catodon) as well as 10 species of dolphin, dugong (Dugong dugon) and five species of sea turtles.

Camp Leakey: Tanjung Puting National Park is located on the island of Borneo in the Indonesian province of Central Kalimantan. The park is a popular ecotourism destination, with many local tour companies offering multi-day boat tours to view wildlife and visit the research centers. Wildlife include gibbons, macaques, clouded leopards, sun bears, pythons, crocodiles and – most famously – orangutans. Unfortunately the park is heavily threatened by illegal logging and forest clearing for agricultural uses., this is your best opportunity to see orangutans in their own habitat. Some are being rehabilitated, while wild orangutans also visit the area, which is not fenced.

Birutie Galdikas Camp Leakey

With some luck, you might meet, Dr. Birute Galdikas. In the early ’70s, Dr. Galdikas traveled from Los Angeles to the Indonesian province of Central Kalimantan on Borneo island to study the red-haired primates. She has spent much of the last 45 years on the island, researching the orangutan and fighting to protect its habitat.

Bunaken: Located at the north of the island of Sulawesi, Bunaken is one of Indonesia’s most famous dive and snorkeling areas. The island is part of the Bunaken Marine Park where you can see more than 70 percent of all fish species that live in the western Pacific ocean.

Bunaken scuba diving Indonesia

Indonesia is an epicenter of underwater biodiversity, hosting a greater variety of marine life than anywhere else on earth. The South China Sea, the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean converge here, on the world’s largest archipelago of more than 18,000 islands, and the result is spectacular diving. Thriving off Indonesia’s vast coastline are more than 600 coral and 3000 fish species. The best time for diving in Bunaken is between April and November.

Torajaland: Also known as Tanah Toraja, this is a highland region of Sulawesi, home of the Toraja people. Torajans are famous for their massive peaked-roof houses and spectacular funeral rites. The region also features some interesting megaliths.

Tanah toraja

Lake Toba: Lake Toba is on the island of Sumatra. It’s an immense volcanic lake about 100 kilometers long and 30 kilometers wide. Formed by a gigantic volcanic eruption some 70,000 years ago, it is the largest resurgent caldera on Earth. Genetic estimates suggests that there were only a few thousand humans that survived the catastrophe. The island in the middle – Pulau Samosir – is the largest island within an island and contains two lakes. Tourists from around the world come here to relax and swim in the volcanically warmed waters.

Lake Toba Sumatra Indonesia

The volcanic activity of this region produces fertile land and beautiful scenery. It also contains rich deposits of coal and gold.

Ubud: Perched high in the hillsides, Ubud is much cooler and greener than life on the beaches far below. Ubud is considered the cultural heart of Bali and one of the top tourist attractions in Indonesia. There are dance and music performances every day throughout the city as well as numerous art galleries and craft shops to explore. Although Ubud has long been valued as a great place to learn about Balinese culture. Tourism in Ubud boomed exponentially in the last decades. Fortunately, it only takes a short walk or bicycle ride to escape from the crowds and commercialism. An area called the monkey forest sits on the edge of town and its filled with wild monkeys that will beg you for food.

Bali culture

Raja Empat: This is a fascinating diving destination near Papua. It’s a great region to see manta rays and other rare marine life. Over time, tourists mispronounced the name so much that even locals refer to the area as Raja “Ampat.” Don’t be fooled and please don’t perpetuate the error. Raja Empat means “four kings.” As with the best diving in Indonesia, this trip requires a live-aboard boat.

scuba dive Sulawesi

The waters of Raja Empat boast more than 1200 marine life species. The reefs at Kofiau are filled with colorful soft and hard corals that hide myriad creatures while blue and gold fusiliers flow like living rivers of color overhead. These coral bommies and gardens harbor some of the highest marine biodiversity in the region. At Northwest Misool, a blue water mangrove maze of trees meets the color of the reef. If you’re a photographer who likes over/under images, you’ll want to take up permanent residence. The Passage is a narrow river of sea between Waigeo and Gam Islands, the coral here grows pretty much to the surface and you’ll find piles of nudibranchs, sharks, cuttlefish and octopus among the soft corals.

Wakatobi: Wakatobi is a world-class scuba diving destination. It’s drop-off is famed for its action and color, with everything from blue ringed octopus and ghost pipefish to resident sea turtles cruising past soft corals and gorgonians. Lembeh is renowned for muck diving. With a sharp eye, you’ll find banded snake eels, pygmy seahorses, octopus, scorpion fish and literally hundreds of extraordinarily well-camouflaged critters. Almost anything could be hiding in the black sand.

Indonesia scuba diving

Those who make the journey to Wakatobi are well rewarded. Above water, the islands are stunning. Below, the diverse and memorable house reef is home to creatures ranging from the small and strange to giant mantas and resident turtles. In addition, the readily accessible coral garden at Teluk Maya harbors Pegasus sea moths, pipe fish, and an endemic pygmy seahorse species.

Indonesia scuba adventures

Many dive sites feature thick forests of vibrant soft corals, which hide lots of animals. Seamounts dominate the extraordinarily photogenic dive at Blade where sea fans, sponges and corals abound and seem to have positioned themselves in the most picturesque places on the reef.

Indonesia tourism marketing and public relations firm

Crossbow Communications specializes in international marketing, issue management and public affairs. Indonesia is one of our regions of expertise. Our President and founder is the author of the Language and Travel Guide to Indonesia. Please contact Gary Chandler at gary@crossbow1.com. Visit Indonesia.

Borobudur The Crown Of Java

Prambanan Also Near Yogyakarta

When scholars and historians speak of the world’s great Buddhist temples, most conversations include Borobudur, which means monastery on the hill. Borobudur is the world’s largest Buddhist temple and is most famous for its many stone-carved panels depicting the life and teachings of Buddha. The narratives, over a thousand in all, are part of the temple itself, helping to form the terraces that support the temple’s chambers. The massive monument consists of at least two million stone blocks. This monumental structure was constructed in the 9th century and it dominates an entire hill near Yogyakarta.

Some scholars believe that this massive structure is a gigantic textbook about Buddhism to help people achieve enlightenment. To read this Buddhist textbook one must walk more than two miles to unveil all of its massive stone pages. The walls of the galleries are adorned with impressive reliefs illustrating the life of Buddha Cakyamuni and his teachings.

temple Borobudur

Representing the existence of the universe, Borobudur perfectly reflects the Buddhist cosmos, which divides the universe into three separate levels. The three levels are Kamadhatu (world of desire), Ruphadatu (world of forms), and Arupadhatu (world of formlessness).

On the three uppermost terraces, 72 stupas circle the huge main stupa at the top of this monument. The circular form represents an eternity without beginning and without end, a superlative, tranquil, and pure state of the formless world. There are no reliefs on the three circular terraces.

All but the largest central stupas on the upper levels originally contained a life-size statue of Buddha, although many of these statues are missing or damaged from centuries of pillaging. There also are many alcoves along the lower levels, which contain similar statues.

Borobudur Java Indonesia

Despite its massive size and height, Borobudur was lost for many years. The temple was ultimately abandoned with the rise of Islam, and the halls that once echoed with the pilgrim footsteps of scholars, artists, and priests were overrun by the dynamics of volcanic ash and jungle growth.

Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles began reclaiming it in 1814, after he received a report about the discovery of a hill full of many carved stones.

In 1835, the site was cleared and the entire structure was reconditioned block by block. Unfortunately, in 1896 the Dutch colonial government gave away several artifacts to the King of Siam, including eight large containers of Borobudur stones, 30 stones with relief, five Buddha statues, two lion statues, several kala stones, stairs, and gates. In 1985, the temple suffered a bomb attack by Islamic rebels. The damage was repaired and UNESCO now lists Borobudur as a World Heritage Site.

Borobudur carvings

You can take the best photographs of Borobudur during the early evening, when the sun gives the stone a warm glow. When it rains, water pours out of the mouths of several gargoyles on the sides of the lower levels of the temple. Bus service to the monument is available from Yogykarta. Visitors do not need to wear a sarong to enter the complex. Borobudur is located in the province of Central Java, 40 kilometers northwest of Yogyakarta.

Prambanan temple Yogykarta

Prambanan is the largest Hindu monument in Indonesia. It was built around 850-900 A.D. The temple has been damaged by centuries of earthquakes, vandals, and other forces. Not long after its construction, the complex of temples was abandoned and allowed to deteriorate.

The reconstruction of the compound began in 1918. The main building was completed in 1953. Other shrines and compounds may never be reconstructed, since much of the original stonework has been taken and reused by local villagers.

Prambanan now is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and one of the largest Hindu temples in Southeast Asia. It is characterized by its tall and pointed architecture and by the centerpiece structure, which reaches more than 47 meters high.

The compound consists of eight main shrines or candis and more than 250 smaller ones. The three main shrines, called Trisakti (three sacred places), are dedicated to the three gods Shiva the Destroyer, Vishnu the Keeper, and Brahma the Creator.

The reliefs along the twenty sides of the temple depict the Ramayana legend. This story is animated by the Ramayana Ballet, which is regularly performed during the full moon in front of the illuminated Prambanan complex. Located in central Java, approximately 18 kilometers northeast of Yogyakarta.

Mt. Merapi Java Indonesia

Mt. Merapi also is nearby. It’s one of the most impressive and destructive volcanoes in Indonesia. Gunung (mountain) Merapi usually is visible from Yogyakarta. Smoke constantly spews from the massive mountain, which reaches an elevation of 2,950 meters, (9,679 feet). Hikers can climb Merapi when it’s not too active. The hike takes plenty of planning and two or more days to accomplish. It’s advisable to join organized assaults that are led by locals. Ask your hotel for more information. It’s visible from Yogyakarta.

Indonesia tourism marketing and public relations firm

Crossbow Communications specializes in international marketing, issue management and public affairs. Indonesia is one of our regions of expertise. Our President and founder is the author of the Language and Travel Guide to Indonesia. Please contact Gary Chandler at gary@crossbow1.com. Visit Indonesia and speak the Indonesian language.

Language and Travel Guide To Indonesia

Indonesia Has Many Of The World’s Largest Islands

More Than 17,500 Islands Across The Equator

Indonesia includes some of the largest and most exotic islands in the world, including Bali, Borneo, Java, Komodo, New Guinea, and Sumatra. There are more than 17,500 islands in all. Indonesia shares two of its largest islands with other countries. The Indonesian state of Papua, formerly known as Irian Jaya, occupies the western half of New Guinea—the world’s second largest island. Indonesia also controls part of the island of Borneo, which is the third-largest island in the world. Indonesia shares the island of Borneo with Brunei and Malaysia. Indonesia’s share of Borneo is called Kalimantan.

cropped-cropped-Explore-kelimutu.jpg

In addition to these large islands, Indonesia controls all of Sumatra, which is the sixth-largest island in the world. Meanwhile, Sulawesi and Java rank as the 11th and 13th largest islands on the planet. Java is the most populous of the Indonesian island—more than 60 percent of all Indonesians live here—and it is the most populated island in the world. Java,is home to the capital city of Jakarta, where about 25 million people live. Despite the population density on Java, hundreds of other islands in the country are uninhabited.

The real beauty of Indonesia is found in the eyes and smiles of its people. Taking the time to learn some simple Indonesian words and phrases will help you unveil more of this country’s wonderful treasures.

Indonesia has a lengthy history that includes some of the earliest human civilizations, as evidenced by the archeological discovery of Java man on the island of Java in the 19th Century. Java Man is the name given to fossils discovered in 1891 at Trinil on the banks of the Bengawan Solo River in East Java, one of the first known specimens of Homo erectus. Its discoverer, Eugène Dubois, gave it the scientific name Pithecanthropus erectus, a name derived from Greek and Latin roots meaning upright ape-man. For more than a century, these were the earliest known human fossils, which unleashed speculation that this region of the world could have spawned human civilization.

Archaeologists made another significant discovery in Indonesia in 2003, when the remains of hobbit-sized humans were found on the remote island of Flores. This human relative, dubbed Flores Man, dates back about 18,000 years, which makes it a more modern skeleton than Java Man or Solo Man. It’s called hobbit because the stature of the newly discovered species is about three feet tall. These people walked upright and had a brain about the size of a chimpanzee.

The country also will play an influential role in the future of human civilization, due to its enormous population and valuable resources. With more than 230 million people, Indonesia is already the fourth most-populous country in the world, behind China, India, and the United States.

Sumatra tiger conservation

Indonesia is home to the world’s second-largest rainforest and hosts many endangered species, including the Sumatran tiger, Javan rhinoceros, orangutan, Komodo dragon, and many others. This tropical country stretches more than 3,200 miles across the Equator. The islands form a massive dotted line that separates the Indian Ocean from the Pacific Ocean.

Although the country does not have an official religion, Indonesia is the largest Islamic country in the world. It has a diverse religious history, including animism, Buddhism, and Hinduism. It also has a varied religious climate today that includes virtually every faith in the world.

Most Indonesians are happy, friendly, and curious people. They often will speak to you as you cross paths. They typically will ask where you are from and where you are going. When you have the opportunity, try to converse with locals. It can be educational, informative, and rewarding. Most Indonesian people know at least a few English words and are eager to learn more. Many Indonesians are very articulate in English, especially those involved in tourism, retail, and international business.

Lombok Rinjani

Taking time to study this book will help you get the most from your trip. Study the chapter on “Essential Phrases” until you are comfortable with many basic words and phrases. The ability to manage a basic vocabulary will help you get the most out of your time in this fascinating country. This book will help you handle almost any situation you may encounter. When you find yourself at a loss for words, be creative—body language and hand gestures can be helpful. In many situations, you can find someone nearby who can interpret for you.

Most Indonesians work very hard to support their families. Treat them with respect and most Indonesians will return it ten times over. To show your respect, try to say some words in their language and offer to tip the people who help you. It also helps to smile when conversing with locals. You also should avoid crossing your arms against your chest when conversing with, or observing, locals. This is a hostile stance in most of Asia and can generate a cold response.

travel Indonesia

One of the most important phrases that you should remember is Terima kasih. (TEHR‑ree‑MAH KAH‑see) Thank you. These simple words often will generate a smile and a nod. In response, the person will likely say Sama sama, which means Same to you or the equivalent of You are welcome. The person might also say, Terima kasih kembali, which also means thank you in return or you are welcome.

There are approximately 300 different cultures throughout this large country, including more than 250 different languages. Bahasa Indonesia, or Indonesian, is the official and most common language (“bahasa” is the Indonesian word for “language.”). It is spoken in part by almost every culture throughout the vast country. Bahasa Indonesia contains aspects of many other languages, including Javanese, Malay, English and Latin. It also includes Arabic, Chinese, Portuguese, and Dutch influences. Dutch colonialists revised Bahasa Indonesia during their occupation of this tropical country.

Indonesia tourism marketing and public relations firm

Crossbow Communications specializes in international marketing, issue management and public affairs. Indonesia is one of our regions of expertise. Our President and founder is the author of the Language and Travel Guide to Indonesia. Please contact Gary Chandler at gary@crossbow1.com. Visit Indonesia.

Language and Travel Guide To Indonesia

Bali, Java Have Most Of Indonesia’s Golf Courses

World-Class Golf Found Across Indonesia

Indonesian golf courses, typically beautiful and challenging, appeal to golfers of all levels. World-class golf courses are found on the shores of picturesque lakes, inside a volcanic crater, on ocean cliffs, surrounded by lush tropical rain forest, on mountain sides, amidst rice paddies, and in valleys with a panoramic views.

Bali golf course Nirwana

Most golf courses are concentrated on the islands of Java near Jakarta, Bandung, Yogyakarta, and Surabaya. There are more than 50 golf courses within an hour of Jakarta alone. Bali also hosts three world-class courses.

International professionals, including Jack Nicklaus, Robert Trent Jones, Jr., Greg Norman, and Gary Player, have designed many of the golf courses in Indonesia. The courses include clubhouses with amenities, such as international restaurants, bars, showers, locker rooms, and massage services. Many courses and clubs are at higher elevations, which offer relief from the heat below.

Playing golf is relatively affordable in Indonesia. Green fees vary from 75,000 – 200,000 rupiah during the week and 10,000 to 350,000 rupiah (and more) on weekends and holidays.

golf Indonesia

Caddies in Indonesia are predominantly young women. Caddy fees range from 16,000-40,000 rupiah. It is customary to tip the caddy 50,000-100,000 rupiah when your round is complete.

Most golf courses offer a driving range. There also are several driving ranges in Jakarta, including multi-level facilities that reach into the sky like small skyscrapers. Check the Jakarta Shopper’s Guide for current information.

Indonesia has hosted numerous international golf tournaments on Java and Bali. In recent years, these have included the Johnnie Walker Super Tour, The Alfred Dunhill Masters, Volvo Asian Match Play, and the Bali Classic. The Indonesian Open is played in Jakarta and is the largest international tournament in the country.

golf Indonesia

Some courses are very crowded on Saturday mornings. It could take up to five or six hours to play 18 holes on busy days. Some courses are walking courses and some are cart courses. People who cannot handle walking distances in the tropical heat and high humidity should use the cart courses. Heat stroke is a real possibility, so drink plenty of liquids out on the course, and don’t forget your sunscreen and hat.

Indonesia tourism marketing and public relations firm

Crossbow Communications specializes in international marketing, issue management and public affairs. Indonesia is one of our regions of expertise. Our President and founder is the author of the Language and Travel Guide to Indonesia. Please contact Gary Chandler at gary@crossbow1.com. Visit Indonesia.

Language and Travel Guide To Indonesia

Indonesia An Endless Summer For Surfing

Bali, Java and Lombok Good Starting Points For Surfers

Indonesia is ideal for surfing all year round, although the winds and waves shift from season to season. June to August usually produces the largest swells. Some of the best waves are within easy reach off Bali, but other rewarding destinations are found on dozens of islands, including Java, Lombok, and Sumatra. Some of these destinations are extremely remote and require some work.

surf Sumatra

Bali was the first place to feel Indonesia’s international surfing craze. Now, avid surfers trek to Nias island, East and West Java, Sumba, and Sumbawa, just to name a few of the top surfing destinations. The waters around Sulawesi and Kalimantan are sheltered from the swells and are better for underwater pleasures.

Ocean swells are generated from the poles and Indonesia is the first land to break the waves from the South Pole. For this reason, some of the best waves in the world pound the southern shores of Indonesia. Waves in excess of 10 feet are common in places like Ulu Watu off Bali or G-land off Java. Some areas are cursed with strong shore-hugging currents, which are challenging for beginners and swimmers.

Water temperatures are in the mid 70s, but a vest or spring suit can come in handy on windy days. The sun is very strong this close to the equator so lots of protection and rash guards are recommended.

Surfers may have to pay a surfboard tax upon arrival. It is arbitrarily applied, but a reality nonetheless. Surfing supplies are available on Bali and surf tours can be arranged through local travel agencies.

Kuta Beach Bali

Surf Bali

Not only does Bali have some of the best waves in Indonesia, it also is one of the most interesting islands in Indonesia. Bali is probably the only place in this country where visitors can easily navigate around the island without knowing a word of Indonesian.

Bali still lies at the heart of the Indonesian surf experience and is a mandatory stop for first-time visitors. Bali offers 30 top-quality breaks on the southwest and southeast coasts of the island and around the Bukit Peninsula. Some of these breaks, such as Padang Padang and Ulu Watu, are world-class, barreling, reef breaks. Others range from good fun, like the beach-breaks around Kuta and Sanur, to seriously challenging bowl opportunities.

The surf in Bali is usually modest in size—most often in the two-six foot range. However, larger waves do occur on some of the exposed reefs. Due to its 180-degree exposure to swells, surfers can always find a manageable surf break on Bali. Because Bali has surf breaks both on its west-facing and east-facing coasts, it is always offshore somewhere on the island on any given day. Given the number of breaks and the quality and consistency of the waves, it is possible to find great surf with small to moderate crowds.

With its greater share of the tourist traffic, especially from Australia, the needs of sporting tourists are more obviously catered to in Bali than elsewhere in Indonesia. Good places for surfing in the west monsoon (October to March) are Nusa Dua and Sanur. Between April and September, Kuta Beach usually offers better waves than Sanur. Advanced and serious surfers find Ulu Watu a worthy challenge and a rewarding experience.

Indonesia tourism information

Surf Java

The best surfing on Java is on both the western and eastern tips of the island. The central coast is beautiful, but sadly lacking in quality surf.

Grajagan, East Java: This spot is known as “The Legend” or “G-Land,” which tells you it is special. Located at Plengkung Bay, on the southernmost peninsula of Java, is the renowned Grajagan. “G-Land” was discovered in the 70s by a couple of intrepid surfers on a flight between Jakarta and Bali. The long lines of surf were unmistakable perfection and the discovery that followed is now regarded as the world’s best left-hand breaks. The movie All Down the Line exposed this area to the surfing world. The Quiksilver Pro surfing competition is now an annual event at G-Land. This area is one of the most popular surfing attractions in all of Indonesia. The waves break over a shallow reef and provide a tough test for even the best. For goofy‑foot surfers, this is said to be one of the best waves in the world.

G-Land draws surfers from all over the world. They flock to the Javanese jungle each year between March and November, when the swell is generally constant and flat spells are rare. According to experts, it has the longest and fastest left‑hand tube known. The waves here swell up to 12 feet (4 meters), but one slip can be disastrous and medical help is hours away.

The western beaches of the Blambangan Peninsula, Java’s easternmost extension, also has attracts surfers. The whole peninsula is a nature reserve with sea turtles nesting on the beaches and good waves. Most surfers reach it by boat from Bali.

Batu Keras: A good place for beginners, but still satisfactory for the more advanced is the beach near Batu Keras, west of the local resort of Pangandaran. Small but steady right-handers roll in over a sandy bottom. Boogie boards are fun here, too. Avoid the bay between Batu Keras and the Pangandaran Peninsula, as strong currents run parallel to the shore except in the sheltered cove near the reserve itself. Batu Keras is about an hour’s drive west of Pangandaran village, where there is ample accommodation.

Pelabuhan Ratu: Another area becoming increasingly popular with surfers is at Pelabuhan Ratu, a three-hour drive from either Jakarta or Bandung, situated on Java’s southern coast. A few miles from this fisherman’s port going west on a scenic coastal road, there are adequate facilities. But the best place to go to is beyond the 4-star Samudra Beach Hotel, towards the village of Cisolok where beach surroundings are lovely, distinctly tropical, and where the ocean is at its best.

Uluwatu Bali

Surf Lombok

Lombok is a good alternative for those looking for nice, quiet beaches and surfing. The best waves on Lombok are found at Desert Point, on the southwest tip. This area can rival Grajagan or Ulu Watu. It offers long rides, with perfect tubes rolling over shallow coral reefs.

Desert Point: This remote spot is widely regarded as one of the best and heaviest left-hand barrels in the world. Desert Point is notoriously fickle, though. It lies in a remote mountainous region on the southwest coast of Lombok and is best accessed by boat. Lombok is for those surfers seeking a greater variety of setups, including rights, point breaks, beginner, and intermediate level waves.

During the dry season (May – October), the trade winds blow from the southeast, which provide offshore winds for Desert Point as well as many of the left-hand waves on the island. Alternately, the winds in the wet season (November – April), blow from the southwest, which results in more right-hand breaks.

The main surf center of Lombok is Kuta Beach, which is located on the eastern side of the southern coast. Many good hotels are nearby, including the three-star Kuta Inda to the luxurious five-star Novotel Coralia. They feature guide services to help you find the best waves at the right times (except for Desert Point which is more easily accessed by surf charter boat, usually en route to Sumbawa). From there, most surf breaks are within an hour’s drive. Desert Point, however, is a half-day away from Kuta Beach.

Lombok is best accessed from Bali by ferry, which takes about 2 hours. Ferry cost is minimal, but they do charge extra to transport surfboards. The Mabua Express is a high-speed passenger ferry with comfortable seating and even a movie for the ride over. From the port at Lembar, land transfers are available to Desert Point or Kuta Beach. Another option is flying to Mataram, the largest city on Lombok, from Bali or Singapore.

Surf Sumbawa

This island has some of the most perfect waves in Indonesia, but you must speak some Indonesian to find your way around. This island, much like neighboring Lombok, is much drier than Bali and other parts of Indonesia. The land is mostly barren with many steep cliffs dropping straight into the sea. The two main surfing areas are West Sumbawa and the Lakey area.

West Sumbawa: This area is mostly made up of hollow left-hand breaks that are best accessed by boat charter. The charters will pull up and anchor at the best breaks for easy access to the surf.

Lakey: During the dry season (May – October), the trade winds blow from the southeast offering offshore winds to the lefts of west Sumbawa. Alternately, the winds in the wet season (November – April), blow from the southwest which results in more right breaks. Water temperatures are in the mid 70s, but a vest or spring suit can help on windy days.

Some hotels and surf camps are located right in front of the main breaks of Lakey Peak and Lakey Pipe, with other waves within walking distance. Most waves are a long paddle or walk across the reef depending on the tide. Reef boots are recommended.

Travelers can access Sumbawa from Bali by air or sea. It takes about seven hours by the fast ferry. There also is a surfboard tax of 15,000 rupiah for each board bag. Merpati Airlines operates daily flights from Bali to Bima, Sumbawa. Most of these planes can take surfboards. Upon arrival in Bima, it’s approximately 2.5 hours to Lakey Peak by overland transfer. West Sumbawa is best accessed by surf charter boat. Charters typically depart Bali for a minimum of seven nights.

Surf Sumatra

North Sumatra is one of Indonesia’s last surfing frontiers. It consists of several small islands, including the Hinako Islands, Nias, Telos, and two other island groups to the north. North Sumatra enjoys its best surfing season from May to September. Despite Indonesia’s reputation for hollow left-hand breaks, in North Sumatra, right-handers are more common. While Lagundri Bay at Nias has been surfed for decades, it is the more obscure rights like Bawa (a right-hand bowl with 15-footers or more) and Treasure Island (a long, hollow, mechanical right-hander that rolls for 200 meters) that have attracted the attention recently.

Nias Island: The professional surfing tour came here in 1994. Nias is home to waves with a right‑hand break, in a region where they are rare. The waves at Nias are fickle and you may need plenty of time to catch them at their best. About 125 kilometers off the western coast of Sumatra, Nias was barely known until a television commercial exposed its charms to Australians.

The best time of year to venture here is between June and October. Nias has one of the best right-handers in Indonesia. It is situated at the western end of Lagundri Bay and pumps out 15-foot waves regularly. It also produces hollow, deep waves. Accommodations in the area are basic and affordable. Daily flights are available from Medan and daily ferries are available from Sibolga.

Mentawai: The Mentawai Islands are about 100 kilometers off of the west coast of Sumatra. They consist of four main islands with many smaller islands scattered throughout. From north to south, the main islands are Siberut, Sipora, North Pagi, and South Pagi. These islands block most swells from reaching the mainland on Sumatra, but they offer some of the most perfect surf in the world. Access to the islands is by sea only with regular ferries to the main trading ports. The best way to access the surf is by charter boat.

The best time for surfers to visit is between May and November. Ferries can be accessed in Padang and organized tours can be arranged from there as well. Independent travelers must speak some basic Indonesian.

Asu: This island offers world-class left-hand waves, while its neighboring island of Bawa features classic right-handers. Located in the Hinako group of islands, west of Nias.

Indonesia tourism marketing and public relations firm

Crossbow Communications specializes in international marketing, issue management and public affairs. Indonesia is one of our regions of expertise. Our President and founder is the author of the Language and Travel Guide to Indonesia. Please contact Gary Chandler at gary@crossbow1.com. Visit Indonesia.

Language and Travel Guide To Indonesia

Indonesia’s Museum’s, Monuments Loaded With History

Museums, Monuments Found Across Indonesia

Indonesia’s monuments and museums are found throughout the country. They represent the whole spectrum of Indonesian life, thought and history. The best-known and also the oldest in existence of the museums of art, culture and history is the Central Museum in Jakarta.

Museums of natural history are found in Bogor and Bandung. Of equal scientific interest, though small in size, is the Sangiran museum of paleontology and anthropology near Solo (Surakarta).

Sangiran Museum

Sangiran Museum
A small museum in this village, 15 kilometers from Solo, displays prehistoric fossils found in the region. This area is found along the Solo River. It has an outcropping of the earth’s prehistoric surface, which has yielded many major anthropologic finds. Among them were the remains of Solo Man, one of the earliest human fossils known. The fossilized remains of Java Man were found not far away in 1881 by the Dutchman Dr. Eugene Dubois near the village of Trinil, East Java.

Indonesia mask

Central Museum
Jakarta’s Central Museum is one of the finest in Southeast Asia. Founded in 1788, it still has the world’s most complete collection of Indonesian artifacts. Its Hindu-Javanese collection is one of the finest in the world. It has one the richest collections of Han, Tang and Ming porcelain, and an array of Chinese, Thai and Vietnamese export ceramics. Its monetary collection includes rare specimens of cloth-money used in the past in various areas of Indonesia. The National Library is adjacent to the museum. It features more than 700,000 old and recent volumes of books, manuscripts and periodicals covering virtually every subject on Indonesia.

Jakarta History Museum fatahillah square

Jakarta History Museum, Fatahillah Square
This open-air museum in Jakarta has three main structures. The first is the Jakarta Museum, which exhibits the colonial history of the city, but also includes relics from the pre-colonial past. The building on the east, formerly the Supreme Court, houses the Fine Arts Gallery and the Ceramics Museum, which contains an excellent Chinese and Southeast Asian ceramics collection. On the western side of the square is the Wayang Museum, filled with puppets used in the indigenous puppet theater. The largest part of the collection consists of wayang kulit, the popular flat leather puppets from various regions. Demonstrations of the shadow play are given every Sunday morning.

Maritime Museum
The Maritime Museum is at the northern end of Jakarta. It has exhibits displayed inside the historic Dutch East India Company warehouses. In small-scale models and pictures, the museum attempts to give the visitor an idea of Indonesia’s seafaring tradition and the importance of the sea to the economy of present-day Indonesia. The museum features models of fishing boats from most parts of Indonesia, including the legendary pinisi schooners of the Bugis people of South Sulawesi.

Merdeka Square Monas National Monument Jakarta

National Monument
The 137-meter tall monument, also known as Monas, symbolizes Indoesia’s independence with a gold-leaf flame at the top. It faces the Presidential Palace in Jakarta. The basement of the monument houses a Museum of History with dioramas about Indonesia’s history—from prehistoric times through the present. A good portion of the display is devoted to the national war for independence, which raged from 1945 through 1949. You can hear the voice of Indonesia’s first president, Sukarno, in the Hall of Silence at the foot of the National Monument. The monument is located at Merdeka Square (freedom square).

Armed Forces Museum
The Satria Mandala Museum, or Armed Forces Museum, is located in the southern part of Jakarta. It features an interesting collection of arms, including Japanese fighter planes from World War II, Russian and American guns, and armored cars.

The Textile Museum
The Textile Museum in Jakarta has about 600 different kinds of traditional Indonesian textiles, from batik to ikat and Dayak bark cloths. In many regions, such textiles are still used to pay fines, avert illness, and mark other social and religious purposes. Some of the oldest Indonesian ornamental designs are found in their original textiles.

Museum Indonesia
The Museum Indonesia, a three-story structure in traditional Balinese architecture, is located inside the Taman Mini Park. The museum has a vast collection of contemporary Indonesian arts and crafts, traditional costumes from the various regions, puppets, musical instruments, masks, and a large variety of utensils and equipment used in daily life across the islands. Mannequins and replicas display the various rituals concerned with the passage of life.

Museum Sono Budoyo
Founded in 1935, this museum faces the Kraton (Sultan’s palace) in Yogyakarta. It is built in traditional Javanese architecture. Its collection includes weapons, leather and wooden wayang puppets, masks, statues, textiles, curios, and old Javanese gamelan instruments. A library also is attached.

Museum Radjapustoko
The Radjapustoko Museum is located next to the Sriwedari amusement park in Solo. It features an interesting collection of art objects and mementoes from Java’s past.

Zoological Museum
The Zoological Museum in Bogor has a vast collection of preserved Indonesian animal species, from birds and reptiles to mammals and conchs displayed in life-like dioramas. The museum includes a library about the Indonesian animal world as well.

Geological Museum
The fossilized skull of legendary Java Man is featured at the Geological Museum in Bandung. The museum was founded in 1929 and includes collections of fossils, rocks, minerals, volcano models, maps, and more.

Other Monuments and Museums

Museums of local culture and history are found in many provincial capitals and towns across Indonesia, including the Bukittinggi Museum in West Sumatra, the Makkasar Museum in the former Fort Rotterdam in Ujung Pandang (Makassar), South Sulawesi, and the Simalungun Museum at Pematang Siantar, in North Sumatra.

Indonesia tourism marketing and public relations firm

Crossbow Communications specializes in international marketing, issue management and public affairs. Indonesia is one of our regions of expertise. Our President and founder is the author of the Language and Travel Guide to Indonesia. Please contact Gary Chandler at gary@crossbow1.com. Visit Indonesia.

Language and Travel Guide To Indonesia

Indonesia’s Archaeology Still Unfolding

Hidden Gems Across Indonesia

Many of the world’s most important archaeological sites have been found in Indonesia. Java man, Flores (Hobbit) man, Borobudur, Prambanan and many other discoveries have drawn explorers from near and far. Much more ancient history is unfolding across Indonesia today.

gunung padang

Gunung (mountain) Padang is a megalithic site located in Karyamukti village in the West Java Province. It’s about 50 km southwest of the city of Cianjur. Some are calling it the largest megalithic site in all of Southeast Asia.

The massive Indonesian site was put on the international map in the publication Rapporten van de Oudheidkundige Dienst (Report of the Department of Antiquities) in 1914. Dutch historian N. J. Krom also mentioned it in 1949. Employees of the National Archeology Research Centre studied the site in 1979.

gunung padang Indonesiapadang pyramid

The site in West Java covers a hill in a series of terraces bordered by retaining walls of stone that are reached by about 400 andesite steps. It is covered with massive rectangular stones.

Sundanese culture considers the site sacred. They believe King Siliwangi built the structure in one night. It faces northwest, toward the Mount Gede volcano. The site was completed by 5000 BC. The entire hill may itself be an ancient pyramid. So far, researchers have found:

    • Based on geoelectric, georadar, and geomagnetic testing, there is a structure beneath the surface with large chambers;
    • Many man-made artifacts have been discovered;
    • The construction of the site spans four eras;
    • The site was dated 6,500 years BP (before present) by carbon radiometric dating at 3–4 meters below the surface (12,500 years at 8 to 10 meters below the surface), and the artifacts at the surface date to about 4,800 years BP;
    • The site area is approximately 25 hectares. The massive Borobudur temple occupies only 1.5 hectares.
    • Walls of the terraces are similar to those found at Machu Picchu in Peru.

Dr. Danny Hilman is responsible for the archaeological team on the site. They also announced the discovery of a metal device that is presumed to be the worlds oldest electrical instrument. According to researchers, this object is made out of gold and copper and seems to resemble a primitive capacitor. 

Indonesia pyramids

The discovery of the electrical device at  Gunung Padang  is getting a lot of attention. Former President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono of Indonesia visited the site and congratulated the researchers. According to archaeologists, the subsurface layers at Gunung Padang might be more than 12,000 years old. Finding an electrical device in that area suggests that ancient man mastered electricity thousands of years ago.

Previously, the researchers found giant bowls, rivers and springs, domes, towers, aquifers and a transmitter. Magnetic anomalies are found in these locations.

Mount Sadahurip is another pyramid shaped hill in West Java, near Cicapar Sand Village. Mount Sadahurip, dubbed the Garut Pyramid, is undergoing verification tests to see if the mount is indeed a man-made (or partially man-made) structure.

Garut Pyramid Java Indonesia

The Garut Pyramid is larger than the Great Pyramid of Giza and could be far older. By using geo-electric instruments, surveyors are measuring the resistance of the geological layers, while seeking additional funding to begin excavations. An initial survey determined that the structure is unlikely to be of natural formation.

Bada Valley, Sulawesi features several megaliths throughout a remote area in the Poso Regency on the island of Sulawesi. It is part of Lore Lindu National Park. Bada Valley features dozens of ancient megaliths and several large stone caldrons. The objects remain a mystery.

Bada Sulawesi monolith

Bada Valley Indonesia archeology

Bada Valley Indonesia

Bada Valley Indonesia monolith

Sulawesi monoliths

The carved megaliths are between 1,000-5,000 years old. They’re scattered across the valley. When asked about the origin of these statues, locals explain that they’ve always been here. Some believe they were used in ancestral worship or may have had something to do with human sacrifice. Others believe that these statues ward off evil spirits. One legend tells that they are criminals which were turned to stone, and there is even a superstition that the statues can disappear or move from place to place. Some have even been reported found in slightly different locations. These statues are made from a type of stone not found anywhere near the area.

Tanah Toraja, Sulawesi. More monoliths are found throughout Torajah land and lives.

torajah sulawesi

Tanah toraja monolith

Cipari, Java is a Neolithic settlement in the Kuningan district of West Java, northeast of Bogor. Megalithic formations are found here. They are dated at around 1000 BCE.

cipari Indonesia archaeology cipari

Sumba features many monoliths, including tombs:

sumba east nusa tenggara

Pyramid Lalakon, West Java. Much work remains, but it fits the profile of similar-shaped mounds in the region.

pyramid lalakon West Java

Candi Sukuh, West Java resembles Mayan-style temples.

candi Sukuh Temple

Gunung Kawi, Bali

gunung kawi bali

Nias, Sumatra

Nias Sumatra monolith

Candi Sambisari, Java

Candi Sambisari temple

Indonesia is best known for its famous and elegant temples, including Borobudur, Tanah Lot, Uluwatu and many others. However, these emerging and lesser-known gems are worth the trip. As a fan of Ancient Aliens and ancient arts and culture, this is a topic that I love. If you have stories and photos to share, please contact me.

Indonesia tourism marketing and public relations firm

Crossbow Communications specializes in international marketing, issue management and public affairs. Indonesia is one of our regions of expertise. Our President and founder is the author of the Language and Travel Guide to Indonesia. Please contact Gary Chandler at gary@crossbow1.com. Visit Indonesia.

Language and Travel Guide To Indonesia

Jakarta The Capital Of Indonesian Commerce

Urban Destinations On Java

Jakarta (JAH-kahr-TAH) is located on the northwest coast of Java. Jakarta means “victory city.” It’s the capital of Indonesia and the largest city in the country. It has almost 10 million residents.

Jakarta, Indonesia tourism

The first recorded settlement at what is now Jakarta was the port of Kelapa, near the mouth of the Ciliwung River. Its origin can be traced to a Hindu settlement as early as the 5th Century. By the 12th century, it was a major port for the Hindu kingdom of Sunda. The Portuguese were reportedly the first Europeans to visit the port of Kelapa. A Hindu king granted Portuguese traders permission to build a fort at Kelapa in the early 16th century. Jakarta’s port is still at Sunda Kelapa today.

In 1527, Fatahillah, a young leader from a nearby kingdom from the north, conquered the city. Fatahillah renamed Kelapa to Jayakarta on June 22, 1527, which is regarded as the official birth date of Jakarta.

Jakarta tourism culture heritage

The Dutch came to Jayakarta at the end of the 16th century. In 1619, the forces of the Dutch East India Company, led by Jan Pieterszoon Coen, conquered the city and changed Jayakarta’s name to Batavia, the Latin name for the Netherlands. Batavia became the capital of the colonial Dutch East Indies. In the early 19th century, the city was expanded as the Dutch began moving south to higher-elevation areas. The British captured Java in 1811, while the Netherlands was preoccupied with the Napoleonic Wars in Europe. The British returned it to the Dutch after just five years on the island.

With Dutch rule expanding across the Indonesian archipelago during the 19th and early 20th centuries, the importance of Batavia (Jakarta) increased. To maintain control and maximize tax revenue, the Dutch required nearly all exports from anywhere in the region to pass through the city, which established an overwhelming political and economic dominance that Jakarta retains today.

 

Japan controlled the city during World War II and renamed it Jakarta, which helped it gain local support during its occupation. Following Japan’s defeat in 1945, the Dutch reoccupied the city, despite the declaration of independence by the Indonesians on August 17, 1945. Under international pressure, the war for independence ended with the establishment of Indonesia in 1949.

Unlike other cities in Indonesia, Jakarta has a special provincial status, which empowers a governor instead of a mayor. Jakarta is divided into five districts called kotamadyas and each has its own local government structure.

marine tourism Indonesia

So many cultures have passed through Jakarta over the past 300 years, that it has acquired a world-class collection of old sailing ships. The ships are in an area known as Sunda Kelapa, the old Dutch port. In addition to a variety of well-preserved colonial vessels, it also has several examples of native Buginese ships.

Although the city is know for its heavy traffic and high level of pollution it is filled with an exciting nightlife and vibrant shopping areas. The city also is the melting pot of Indonesian culture.

Indonesia tourism marketing and public relations firm

Crossbow Communications specializes in international marketing, issue management and public affairs. Indonesia is one of our regions of expertise. Our President and founder is the author of the Language and Travel Guide to Indonesia. Please contact Gary Chandler at gary@crossbow1.com. Visit Indonesia.

Language and Travel Guide To Indonesia